Vypracovala: Miroslava Šimová

 

 

Science is systemized knowledge through experimentation, observation and study. There are many fields if science for example, natural sciences, social sciences, environmental sciences.

 

Technology is a product of science. Society depends on technology and on the other hand technology exists thanks to the needs of society.

 

The industrial revolution started in the 18th century in the England and brought many changes and inventions. Technology has become part of our life and new technological inventions make our life easier.

 

People make big scientific and technological progress in transport, medicine, biology and information technology. When we compare how people travelled in the past and how they travel today, the progress in car industry is incredible.

 

In the 20th century for the first time people also leave the planet and explore the space. Enormous progress has been made in medicine. Science and technology help ease the pain of certain types of diseases, it cures and prevents some of them, it also helps to prevent the life of people and makes the lives of the handicapped easier.

 

In the biology especially microbiology the scientists create the life. Nowadays, “in vitro” fertilization and cloning are the most debated issues in this field.

 

During the last decade, there has been a great change in information and communication technologies, especially in wireless technology. For example, computers are used almost everywhere. The number of people using mobile phones has rapidly increased. They have become a symbol of comfortable, quick communication among people. A cell phone, music player, camera and a palm computer are being put together into one little gadget.

 

Perhaps one of the greatest inventions of our times is the Internet. No doubt, the net has had a big effect on almost every part of our lives. It has changed the way we do business, how we communicate and entertain and how we search for information. Many people send documents, buy things, book hotels, reserve tickets or transfer their money via the Internet. Chatting, joining discussion groups, reading articles, downloading music is very popular among the young people. Computers have also replaced people in some professions.

 

Science and technology help us with our everyday work and without it our lives would be more difficult. On the other hand science and technology can be misused, for example we drive cars daily but they pollute the air.

 

Scientists will continue to conduct research in medicine, and all other fields of science. Slovakia has many good researches – scientists, programmers, technicians, doctors and teachers, but in recent years they have left our country to find a better – paid job elsewhere in the Europe or USA.   

 

Inventions and Discoveries:

  • In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

  • In 1924 the Scottish inventor and engineer John Logie Baird developed a television.

  • In 1894 Italian engineer Marconi developed the first radio while experimenting in his parents` attic.

  • Alexander Calder, an American sculptor, invented the mobile in the early 20th century. His invention became famous worldwide.

  • Isaac Newton: was an English physicist. He discovered gravitational force.

  • Alfred Bernard Nobel, the Swedish chemist, invented a safer way of using nitro-glycerine in the production of dynamite.

  • Dimitri Mendelev composed his periodic table of elements.

  • Luis Pasteur, the French biologist, produced a vaccine against rabies. He also invented the process known as pasteurisation.

  • Charles Darwin proposed the theory that all differences in animals were formed by natural processes over long periods of time.

  • James Watson and Francis Crick clarifiedthe basic structure of DNA.

 

Použitá literatúra:

  • Bérešová, J. a kol.: Nová maturita z angličtiny, Aktuell, 2005

  • Billíková, A., Preložníková, S. Angličtina – nová maturita – vyššia úroveň. Enigma, 2008.