Vypracoval: Boris Vavrík

 

 

English is the world language, the language of international communication. It is spoken by around 350 million people. English speaking countries are: Great Britain, Northern Ireland, United States of America, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, many of the countries in the Caribbean.

 

 


New Year´s Day

In Canada New Year’s Day has a long tradition of celebration. New Year’s Eve in French Canada is marked by the custom of groups of young men dressed in colourful attire and go from house to house, singing and begging gifts for the poor.

New Year isn’t such important holiday in England as Christmas. Some people don’t celebrate it at all. In London crowds usually gather round the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus and welcome the New Year.

In USA many people have New Year parties. A party usually begins at about 8 o’clock and goes on until early morning.

In Scotland the New Year’s Day is also a  public holiday. Hogmanay is a Scottish name for New Year’s Eve, and it is a time for giving the presents.

St. Valentine´s day

People in love send Valentines to each other, special cards with hearts, flowers and loving words

Pancake day

Everybody eats only specially prepared pancakes during this day. Pancakes are eaten on this day because they contain fat, butter and eggs which were forbidden during Lent

St. David´s day

On the 1st of March each year you can see people walking around London with leeks pinned to their coats. А leek is the national emblem of Wales. Many Welsh people who live in London, or in other cities outside Wales like to show their solidarity on their national day.

The day is called after abbot who became patron of Wales.

Mother´s day

Mothers’ day is traditionally celebrated on the fourth Sunday of Lent.

St. Patrick’s Day

It’s an Irish religious holiday. St. Patrick is the patron of Ireland. Irish and Irish Americans celebrate the day. They decorate their houses and streets with green shamrocks and wear something green. In large cities long parades march through the streets. Those who aren’t Irish also wear green neckties and hair ribbons and take part in the celebration

Easter

London’s Easter Parade: London greets the spring, and its early visitors, with a spectacular Easter Parade in Battersea Park on Easter Sunday each year. The great procession begins at 3 p.m.

April fools´s day

On April 1st people play a joke on each other.

May day in Great Britain

May day celebrations are traditionally held on the Sunday, unless the 1st of May falls on Sunday. This day workers march through the streets saying their own demands and the demands of other progressive forces of the country - demands for higher wages and better working conditions, protests against rising unemployment.

Trooping the colour

Trooping The Colour celebrates the Sovereign’s official birthday (her actual birthday is on 21 April). It has traditionally been held in June to try and enjoy better weather!

The ceremony dates back to at least the early 18th century when the colours (flags) of the battalion were carried (or ’trooped) down the ranks so that they could be seen and recognized by the soldiers.

Midsummer's Day

The festival is fire festival, representing the middle of summer, and the shortening of the days. Midsummer is traditionally celebrated on either the 23rd or 24th of June. Many stone circles and other ancient monuments are aligned to the sunrise on Midsummer's Day. Probably the most famous alignment is that at Stonehenge, where the sun rises over the heel stone.

Independence Day

It is on 4th July. This day commemorates the signing of the Declaration of Independence and establishing the USA. This day usually ends with fireworks.

Happy Hampstead

August Bank Holiday would not be а real holiday for thousands of Londoners without the Fair on Hampstead Heath.

Halloween

Halloween means "holy evening" and takes place on October 31st. Although it is а much more important festival in the USA than in Britain, it is celebrated by many people in the United Kingdom as well. It is particularly connected with witches and ghosts. At parties people dress up strange costumes. They cut horrible faces into pumpkin and put а candle inside, which shines through their eyes. People play different games such as trying to eat an apple from а bucket of water without using their hands.

Guy Fawkes night

It is one of the most popular festivals in Great Britain which takes place on November 5th. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament. He didn´t succeed, but the children of Britain never forget him. Every year, on Guy Fawkes night they make guys to burn on bonfires and let off fireworks.

Thanksgiving Day

On the fourth Thursday in November, American families meet for a special dinner with turkey and pumpkin pie. They give thanks to God for the past year and remember the first harvest of the first European Americans in 1621.

St. Andrew’s day

In some areas of Great Britain St. Andrew was regarded as the patron of lace-makers. At the evening the women wear men’s dress and the men wear female dress.

Christmas celebrations

There are some traditions connected with Christmas, for example giving presents and decorating the Christmas tree.

Boxing day

This is the day when people visit their friends and go for а long walk. It is celebrated on december 25th.

Sunday in England

Many people stay in a bed longer than another days. Church bells are another typical feature of an English Sunday morning.

 

 

Great Britain: Wales

 

The greatest event in Welsh cultural life is the National Eisteddfod, the Welsh national festival devoted to music and poetry. It is held every year in the first week of August, one year in the north of Wales, the next year in the south. Competitors from all parts of Wales come to sing and play the harp – the Welsh national musical instrument, or to recite their poems.