We can´t imagine our life without newspapers, radio, television or internet. If these media suddenly disappeared, most of us would get bored and our lives would seem empty. The media's importance is very simple - they are our source of information, easily available, complex and cheap. Through newspapers, radio, television and internet we learn about the world around us, important inventions, new technologies and unique achievements. Nowadays we consider mass media to be diversified media technologies. We know four basic types of mass media: print media, broadcast media, outdoor media and the digital media.
Print media distribute information through newspaper, magazines, books, pamphlets or comics. Newspaper is a publication containing news, information and advertising. People can find there different sorts of articles: on economics, politics or social life, sports, editorials (giving the personal opinion of the editors about something in the news), features (special reports about an interesting subject, place or person). Newspapers are published every day; some are even published at weekends. Basically, there are two types of newspapers: serious papers (trying to bring news that is objective and serious) and the tabloids (usually smaller in size and specialising in articles that are entertaining, e.g. stories and gossip about famous people). It's interesting that tabloids generally have a larger circulation than serious newspapers.
Magazines are published once a week/month and bring international and national news, various articles and stories. Some target groups of people with special hobbies (e.g. photography, gardening, etc.) or different ages or genders (e.g. teenagers, women, etc.). Journals are serious magazines on a particular subject containing articles written by experts in that field (i.e. scientists, doctors, teachers, etc.).
Broadcast media includes radio, television, films, recording. There exists trere types of broadcast media: Mass media – focuses on global events, Local media – focous on smaller population (regional news) and Speciality media - focuses on specific demographics (music channel, sport channel…)
People, who prefer listening than reading, choose listen to the radio. In the radio, the news is read by a presenter. There is usually a variety of radio programmes to choose from: news programmes and weather forecasts, chat shows (a programme in which famous people talk about themselves and answer listeners' questions), educational programmes, quiz shows in which individuals or teams of people compete by answering questions, breakfast/morning shows (a programme broadcast early in the morning which includes news and regularly tells you what time it is, there are also usually songs, jokes and conversations with famous people), phone-in programmes (when people telephone in to give their opinion or get advice), and finally documentaries. Radio is very popular and many of us like listening to the radio throughout the day no matter what we are doing.
Television is definitely the most popular source of information for people at present and many people spend most of their leisure time watching TV programmes, like: news programmes, chat or quiz show, documentaries, educational programmes, etc. But there are also programmes like soap operas (TV series about a group of people and their lives which is broadcast regularly for many years), sitcoms (an amusing series in which there is a different story each week about the same group of people) and, of course, lots of films and cartoons. There is a wide selection of TV channels available and at any time of a day you will certainly find a programme you feel like watching.
Outdoor media is a type of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placard placed inside or outside of commercial buildings or objects. This form of mass media is used by many commercial advertisers.
The digital media includes the Internet and mobile mass communication. The internet is a worldwide, publicity accessible network that can transmit any data. It includes email, websites, blogs and Internet-radio, or television. Almost for more than half of population is the internet source of all its information. Students use it for studying and searching information, adults can find all news around the world and seniors can easily though the internet contact with their family members around the world. Mobile mass communication represents the message communication to a large group of people, for example cell phones with Internet access.
Mass media are used for several types of reasons, as is advocacy (advertising, marketing, public reason), entertainment (performance of sport, music, or TV shows), public service announcements and emergency alerts (as a political device to communicate propaganda to the public). The media in generally play an important role in society. Some experts say they are too powerful and too influential today.
1. Name four basic types of mass media.
2. Define Print media, give examples.
3. Define Broadcast media, give examples.
4. Define Digital media, give examples.
BÉREŠOVÁ, J. –MACKOVÁ, M. – STEYNE, L.: Nová maturita z angličtiny- základná úroveň B1.1. vyd. Bratislava: AKTUELL, 2005. ISBN 80-89153-14-3
BÉREŠOVÁ, J. – HOSSZÚOVÁ, M. – MACKOVÁ, M.: Nová maturita z angličtiny.1. vyd. Bratislava: AKTUELL, 2004. ISBN 80-88915-92-9