1. ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE AND INACTIVE POPULATION
Work, occupation or profession plays an important role in our lives. The economically active population includes people who are willing and able to work and people people who search for work – the unemployed. The first group includes self-employed people end employees. Economically inactive people are minors, the retired, the disabled, the sick or those who do not wish or are unable to work.
When a child is born, mother usually takes maternity leave. Maternity pay is very low in our country, so the man is often responsible for earning the entire family income. When the child grows a little and is able to attend a nursery school, the mother often goes back to work.
2. PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL WORK
When you want to choose the right profession you have to consider several factors, such as type of work, possible promotion and career development, salary, working time and commuting. Physical work requires physical strength and persistence. There are many types of intellectual work. Some professions require detailed knowledge /e.g. scientists, doctors, lawyers, accountants/, others talent and creativity /e.g. artists/. There are more and more professions that require communication and organisation skills, such as managers, interpreters, teachers, sales representatives. In some occupations, people have responsibility for other peoples’ lives /doctors, pilots, drivers, teachers/. Some professions can be very dangerous /e.g. policeman, fireman, construction worker, pilot, truck driver/.
3. APPLYING FOR A JOB
Employment is a contract between an employer and an employee. Job vacancies are usually advertised in newspapers or on the Internet. Candidates send in their job applications and their CV’s, together with a letter of motivation. Their CV should include personal data and details about their education, skills and work experience. Those who are selected are invited to an interview. If a candidate succeeds, he or she is given an official offer of employment with a defined starting salary, medical benefits and vacation days. Most jobs give paid holiday and sick pay. Employees can be hired to work full-time or part-time. Some of them have fixed-term contract. It means that they earn wages according to the number of hours they work. Many people are self employed and run their own businesses. People who work for free are called volunteers.
4. WORKING SCHEDULES
Working hours in Europe vary between 33 and 41 hours a week. In Slovakia, working hours are normally 40 hours a week. However, there are more and more professions where people work long hours. Shift work describes regular employment outside normal daytime hours and is typical for healthcare service /doctors, nurses/, the emergency services /e.g. emergency medical services, police and fire-fighters/ and production and transportation /e.g. machine operators and truck drivers/. In our country, people in general, start work at 8:00 in the morning and finish at about 5 p.m. They normally have a lunch break at lunch time. Some people have flexible working hours, which means they can work at different times.
5. LABOUR MARKET
The labour market in our country has changed in the last decade. More work opportunities have been created thanks to foreign investors. However, the global financial crisis has increased unemployment; many people are being fired. In every society, there are people who are not willing to work and never will be. They benefit from the social security system – they receive unemployment benefits. They often work illegally. After reaching a certain age, people retire. Men and women retire at different ages.
Billíková, Andrea; Kondelová, Soňa a kol. Yes! Angličtina - nová maturita - vyššia úroveň + 2CD + DVD (B2). Starý Hrozenkov: Enigma publishing, s.r.o., 2012. 664 s. 9788081330155.