1 Name of Country: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
2 Political System: The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy with a democratic form of government. Government representatives elected by citizens over the age of 18 years in the parliamentary elections for five years.
Three bodies of state power and administration: The current head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. (Elizabeth the II.) Published in 1947 for Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. After the death of his father, George VI. In the year 1953 took the throne. (Its official title reads: Alžbet II. The grace of God Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the other realm and territory, the head of the Commonwealth, the advocate of faith.)
Queen in all areas personifies the State: the supreme court, supreme commander of the armed forces and head of the Anglican Church. In practice, its powers are very limited. Queen of the recommendations one by the government which can not be ignored. Parliament has a duty to report on all relevant issues. Parliament convened, and reserves the dissolves, sign it passed laws to enter into force as follows. In addition to presidents and cabinet members appointed by the functions of state officials in all areas: judges, army officers, church leaders and so on. Council also performs ceremonial functions of receiving ambassadors, state visits etc.
Parliament is the supreme legislative authority of the United Kingdom. It has two chambers: House of Lords and House of Commons. Parliament's term of office is five years.
House of Lords is composed of spiritual Lords (Lords Spiritual) and secular Lords (Lords temporal). The first group includes the bishops of Canterbury and York, and 24 bishops of the English Church. The second group includes the hereditary lords and Lifetime lords who perform judicial functions in particular. Meetings of the House of Lords is practically never take part in all of them together because it is about the 1200th House of Lords chaired by Lord Chancellor and the British parliamentary system is the extremely conservative nature.
House of Commons consists of 635 elected by popular vote, with 516 members representing England 71 Scotland 36 Wales 12 and Northern Ireland. Its main task is to hear and approve laws regulating life in the country, creating preconditions for the State legislature.
The Government is very large. He has more than 100 members, state secretaries, ministers, parliamentary secretaries and the Secretary. All are appointed by the Queen on a proposal from the Prime Minister.
The majority of Government members of the House. For the most part the powers of government carries its own prime minister (Tony Blair) and a Cabinet consisting of 20-25 most experienced ministers. The composition of the Cabinet decision the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is also the chief administrators of government finance and head of the state apparatus. Inform the queen of the intentions of the government and oversees the work of the ministers.
4 Administrative divisions: United Kingdom consists of the Englishman, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England and Wales consists of 53 counties with 369 districts, 26 districts of Northern Ireland, Scotland nine areas with 53 districts. Separate administrative units are the Great London, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
5 The capital and major cities: The largest city is the capital city of London, which has a population of more than 9 million people. It occupies 1,580 km2 and is located in southeast England, along both banks of the River Thames, 75 km above its mouth. At the heart of the city is The City where the first century. p. n. l. permanent settlement called Llyn-din. After the Romans renamed it subjected her to Londínium. In the year 1066, London became the seat of William Conqueror, who built the castle there Tower, one of the most famous sights of London.
City of London is the hub of international trade, financial transactions, banks, insurance companies, stock exchanges, the BBC also located here. This section also falls within a range of historical and cultural monuments, such as. London Tower (Tower of London), St.. Paul (St. Paul's Cathedral), Mansion House - the seat of London Mayor, and others.
Westminster is also a well-known parts of London. It dominates the parliamentary houses Big Ben, Westminster Cathedral, Buckingham Palace, Whitehall, 10 Downing Street - British Prime Minister's office. The West End is the area of central London, north of Oxford streed - London Shopping Centre, Regent Street. Are there centers of entertainment such as Piccadilly Circus - which are the two largest UK cinemas: Odeon and Empire, the concentration of theaters, discos, live music, strolling performers talking passers his pieces. From there it can be in addition to numerous business lines and krámikov go for 10 minutes to Leicester Square and from there for another 10 minutes to Trafalgar Square. There stands a huge fountain, statue of Admiral Nelson and monumental statues of lions.
Tourists from all over the world are relaxing and the atmosphere opájajú London.
Baker Street is known mainly wax museum, one of the most visited attractions in London.
In nice weather it is worth to go after large parks, the most famous of which are: Hyde Park, Green Park and St. James Park.
Great importance for the life of the city traffic. Perhaps the simplest is to carry the metro, which has 9 tracks: Bakerloo line, Central line, Circle line, District line, Jubilee line, Metropolitan line, Northern line, Victoria and Piccadily line line. Joints are very frequent in the central parts of the metro does not wait for more than 3-5 minutes. Efficiently connects all corners of London and a reduction in building road.
In London there are many high schools and universities, libraries, museums, theaters, cinemas, concert halls and many monuments and any visitor here can find their own.
Birmingham is the second largest city with more than 1.5 million inhabitants. It is a major industrial, commercial and transport facility. Situated in the middle region of the Black (Black Country), headed by highly polluted industrial areas in the metropolitan county of West Midlands, about 180 km northwest of London. The city and its surroundings are located car: Triumph, Jaguar, Daimler, Austin, MG, Rover and electrical plants, the largest UK companies. The city is also known to manufacture most popular English Cadbury chocolate.
Glasgow is the third largest city, which has more than one million inhabitants. Located in southwest Scotland, on both banks of the River Clyde. There is a concentrated heavy industry: production of construction parts, shipbuilding industry (here was designed and started sailing the Titanic) and light industries: textiles, clothing and tobacco.
Leeds is located in the county of West Yorkshire, you can find a huge steel plants.
City of Sheffield steel and armament industries in the county of West Midlands.
Liverpool, like Sheffield in the West Midlands is one of the leading British port on the River Mersey, is characterized by shipbuilding, engineering and electrical engineering.
Manchester is situated in the West Midlands, the largest center of the textile industries, advanced engineering, electronics and pharmaceuticals.
While these cities are the largest British cities, but in terms of tourism are not attractive. They are characterized by a concentration of more modern construction industry and as historical monuments.
I attractive area
A natural assumptions tourism development
British Isles are of geological part of the European mainland, from which they separated by a shallow shelf sea depth from 50 to 100 m. The department has probably Quaternary. The country features result from both glaciers.
The surface of Britain can be an imaginary line drawn from the mouth of the River Tyne in the northeast to the mouth of the River Exe in the southwest part of the split in the lowlands - amounts to 300 m. The upper part forming a continuous area but there are numerous valleys and planes. Najhornatejšou area of Britain is Scotland. Highlands of Scotland (Scotish Highland) runs from southwest to northwest. It is divided in Grampian (Grampian Mountains), the highest mountain Ben Nevis (measured 1,343 m) northwest of Grampian is the valley formed by discontinuities, there is Lake Loch Ness. To the north there lies the second part of the Scottish Highlands - Northwest Highlands of Carne Eigene highest peak (1,082 m). Central part of Scotland is Stredoškótska plain, which has two major Scottish rivers Forth and Clyde. Stredoškótsku lowlands surrounding the southern highlands Juhoškótska (highest peak Merick Hill, 842 m).
Northern England crosses the ridge penninite (pennine Chain highest hill Cross Fell, 893 m), crest length is 230 km. The western slopes are steep, east is considered only slightly. Massif is rozbrázdený deep valleys. The part is made up of sandstones and limestones, which are karst formations. There is a Kumbrijské mountains to the west is the lake district (Lake District - National Park).
Wales is very mountainous, which pass Kambrijské Mountains, which reach altitude of 700-800 meters and traveling north to Snowdonu, with the highest peak of the same name (Snowdon - 1085 m).
Southern England are Lowland - but without true nature of the plane because it is broken down into low hilly zones consisting of sandstone, limestone and chalk. The most famous are upland Kotswoldská Hills (Cotswold Hills, 326 m) - between Bristol and Cheltenhamom Šilternská plateau (Chiltern Hills). Beautiful mountains and frequently visited Dartmoor in the western tip of England, like the county of Cornwall and Devon, where rocky outcrops are beautiful reefs.
Fauna of the British Isles is essentially similar fauna in northwestern Europe, with the difference that there exists a smaller number of species. Some of the larger mammals such as wolf, bear, wild boar and reindeer were vyhubené or extinct. The deer are protected for sport, occurs in the Scottish Highlands and Devon County and Sommerset. Deer and Daniel live mainly in the fields and natural parks. In rural areas are home to foxes. Of the smaller animals are represented by mice, voles, hedgehog, hare, rabbit, weasel and stoat. The British Isles, there were 460 kinds of birds. Pigeons are widespread (especially in big cities), tits and sparrows.