Nazov skoly The England Project English year: 2007/2008 Meno Trieda England as a country is a member of the United Kingdom and is located on British islands. With 50,431,700 inhabitants, or 84% of the UK's total, England is the most populous nation in the United Kingdom; as well as being the most ethnically diverse. England would have the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population if it was a sovereign state. England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus offshore islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. It is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to Continental Europe than any other part of Britain. The list of England's largest cities is much debated because in British English the normal meaning of city is "a continuously built-up urban area"; these are hard to define and various other definitions are preferred by some people to boost the ranking of their own city. London is by far the largest English city. Manchester and Birmingham tie for second place. Other important cities in England are: Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford, Liverpool and Manchester. If you go to the England there are many places you should visit. England offers great variety of tourist attractions. You could see historical monuments, post-modern architecture, night clubs, spas…etc. In my opinion London is the second famous attraction after the Stonehenge. The City, with a resident population of less than 5000, is, during the day, the workplace of over 500,000 people. It covers just 259 hectares (1 sq mile), hence its nickname of the ‘Square Mile’. Its best-known building is Wren’s St Paul’s Cathedral, completed in 1711. The Museum of London, near St Paul’s, tells the story of London from prehistoric times to the present day. On permanent display is the famous Lord Mayor of London’s coach, which carries the Lord Mayor through the City streets during the annual Lord Mayor’s Show. Close to the City is the Tower of London, built by William the Conqueror in the 11th century. The Tower of London used to be feared jail but nowadays it is only tourist attraction and also a wax museum of horror. Near by there is Tower Hill Pageant, which tells London’s history in relation to the River Thames. The Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, Lloyd’s of London (the world’s leading insurance market), Mansion House (official residence of the Lord Mayor) and the Central Criminal Court (‘The Old Bailey’) all stand within the City boundaries. Dr Johnson’s House is close to Fleet Street, former center of London’s newspaper industry. The Monument (to the Great Fire of 1666) and the Royal Exchange are other famous landmarks; a more recent addition is the Barbican Center, which contains a major arts complex – used by the Royal Shakespeare Company and home to the London Symphony Orchestra. Tower Bridge, although little over 100 years old, is one of the world’s most famous such structures, and it is possible to visit the control room containing the machinery for raising and lowering the central section and to walk along the overhead walkway. Moored on the South Bank close to the bridge is World War II battleship HMS Belfast, also open to visitors. Although London is the capital and has many interesting places to go there are many other places you should visit. One of the most famous monuments in England is the Stonehenge. Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. Archaeologists believe that the standing stones were erected around 2200 BC and the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury henge monument, and it is also a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge itself is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust. England is also very famous for its baths. They have been firstly built by the Romans who came there in 60 B.C. A good example of roman baths is spa complex in town Bath. The temple was constructed in 60-70 AD and the bathing complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years. After the Roman withdrawal in the first decade of the fifth century, these fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, suggests the original Roman baths were destroyed in the 6th century. In 1810 the Hot Springs failed and William Smith opened up the Hot Bath Spring to the bottom, where he found that the spring had not failed but had flowed into a new channel. Smith restored the water to its original course and the Baths filled in less time than formerly. The Roman Baths and the Temple of Sulis Minerva, built in about 75 BC around the largest of the three hot springs, are extraordinarily impressive. The water, containing some 43 different minerals, gushes from a depth of 9,800ft , with a constant temperature of 46.5°C. The Romans named the temple after the Celtic goddess Sul who they associated with their own goddess Minerva. The complex of buildings around the spring served not only to supply the baths with mineral water but also for worship of the two deities, many votive offerings being recovered from the wells. Systematic excavations began in the late 19th century, the most recent being conducted between 1981 and 1983. Many of the artifacts found in the baths, temples and sacred springs are on display in the museum although some have also been left in situ. Visitors should give priority to seeing the Great Bath, which measures 39 x 78ft and is nearly 6ft deep. In Roman times it was roofed over with barrel vaulting and equipped with side ducts. The statues and balustrades are of a later date. Other items of interest include the Gorgon's head on the temple pediment, altar-stones, mosaics, votive offerings (including tablets inscribed with curses) and various fragments of sculpture, among them part of a gilded bronze figure of Minerva. When you go to England you should know something about its history. But it is very hard to say what “to know the history” means. Because the English history is very old and very complex. We know that a thriving culture existed around 8,000 years ago in the misty, westward islands the Romans were to call Britannia, though some have suggested the occupation was only seasonal, due to the still-cold climate of the glacial period which was slowly coming to an end. The new age of settlement took place around 4,500 BC, in what we now term the Neolithic Age. Very early on, farming began to transform the landscape of Britain from virgin forest to ploughed fields. Later on the Romans came to “Britannia” in order to gain some land and slaves. The first Roman invasion of the lands we now call the British Isles took place in 55 B.C. This was the first invasion but the Romans stayed in “Britannia” for over 400 years. By 4l0, Britain had become self-governing in three parts, the North (which already included people of mixed British and Angle stock); the West (including Britons, Irish, and Angles); and the South East (mainly Angles). After the collapse of Roman Britain the most obscure age in British history started. It was the age when the Saxons started to move into Britain. Then the dark age begun and not much was going on. Britain has never been conquered except for year 1066 when the king of Normandy conquered Whole England in just one-day battle. For the next four hundred years it wasted England’s resources and manpower on futile attempts to keep French interests alive. Until the year 1453 when the hundred year war finished there have been wars between the France and England. Then there came age of Tudors and their reformations. After the Tudors Elizabeth the first became queen. It was the begging of the age of empire. Elizabeth supported colonialists. This was also the beginning of the slavery. Slave trade brought a great wealth to England and the whole British Empire. At the beginning of the 19th century when the slavery was abandoned England was one of the richest countries in the world. Because of British Empire had colonies worldwide they had enough resources. This was the reason why England was the first country to have industrial revolution. Since then England as a part of Great Britain was very wealthy country. The only crises were the First and the Second World War. Sources: