Vypracoval: Boris Vavrík

 

 

Australia

 

The country was first inhabited by the Aborigines who reached there around 40 000 years ago.

 

In 1768 Captain James Cook sailed from England and landed near Sydney. He claimed the continent for Britain and the British government established a penal settlement there, where criminals were sent. Free settlers began to arrive and they took the land from Aborigines.

 

Australia is an island continent lying southeast of Asia between the Indian Ocean on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east. Australia is divided into 4 regions:

  • the low narrow plains along the coast,

  • the eastern highlands,

  • the central plains,

  • western plateau.

 

There are 2 big deserts here: Great Sandy and Great Victoria and 2 big rivers: the Murray and the Darling. Australia has only 15 million inhabitants mostly of British origin.

 

The Commonwealth of Australia is an independent self-governing country within the British Commonwealth. It has a federal parliamentary government. The Head of State is the British Queen Elizabeth II. who is represented by the governor-general.

 

The largest cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbaine. The oldest universities are Sydney and Melbourne Universities.

 

Australia is one of the leading producers of wool, meat and dairy products. Australia has many plants, such as giant eucalyptus and the bottle tree and many animals, such as the kangaroo, koala, dingo, emu, which are only found in Australia.

 

Avers Rock is the largest single rock in the world famous for the way it changes colour as the rays of the Sun shine on it from different angles.

 

The Sydney Opera House was opened in 1973 and was designed as a result of a competition.

 

The capital of Australia: Canberra

 

As the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the High Court of Australia. It is also the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, National Gallery of Australia, National Museum of Australia.

 

Canada

 

Canada is the second largest country in the world and more than 25 million people of different national and cultural background live here. Canada is bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean, in the east by the Atlantic Ocean, in the south by the USA and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

 

The highest peak in Canada is Mount Logan. The main rivers are St. Lawrence and the Yukon.

 

48 % of Canada´s population is of British origin, 31 % of French origin, 1 % of Indian, Eskimo and other minorities. The largest cities are Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa are situated near Canada´s southern border. The principal religion of Canada is Roman Catholicism. The official languages are English and French. The country has a developed export-directed economy. Canada is rich in raw materials such as gold, silver. Canada is leading exporter of wood and wood products.

 

Canada is an independent federation within the British Commonwealth. The Prime Minister is the head of Government. Parliament is the supreme legislative body consists of the House of Commons and the Senate. Canada is divided into two national territories and ten provinces.

 

The capital of Canada: Ottawa

 

Ottawa is now a major metropolis and Canada's fourth largest city. Ottawa is situated on the south bank of the Ottawa River, and contains the mouths of the Rideau River and Rideau Canal. The City of Ottawa has a main urban area. Ottawa sits at the confluence of three major rivers: the Ottawa River, the Gatineau River and the Rideau River.

 

Ireland – (Eire)

 

In 1800 Ireland was connected to Britain but in 1922 The Republic of Ireland became independent. Ireland is the third-largest island in Europe with 4 million inhabitants. Important towns are: Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford. The country has a well-developed service, technology and tourism industry. Since its entry into the European Community in 1973, Ireland has seen its economy grow considerably. Its main exports are livestock, dairy products and whisky. Ireland is governed by a senate nominated by the prime minister and a house of representatives elected by the people. Ireland is divided into four provinces: Connaught, Leinster, Munster, Ulster. People speak Irish Gaelic and English.

 

The of Ireland seacoast is wild and beautiful. The climate is temperate with mild winters and cool summers. Farming is the most important part of Ireland´s economy. Ireland is a land, where traditions are still important. It´s land of very nice music, culture and nature.

 

The capital of Ireland: Dublin

 

Dublin is the largest city of Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary cultural centre for the Ireland as well as a modern centre of education, the arts, administrative function, economy and industry. Live music is popularly played on streets and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including U2, Boyzone. Dublin city centre has several shopping districts, such as Grafton Street, Henry Street.

 

New Zealand

 

New Zealand is an island country in the Pacific Ocean situated southeast of Australia. It consists of two principal islands: North and South Island. The country´s population is about 3 million people.

 

In North Island live more than half of population. You can find there hills, low mountains, beautiful springs and geysers. The biggest towns are Wellington and Auckland – busy seaport.

 

In South Island is the highest peak Mount Cook in the Alps.

 

New Zealand is an independent parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth. The official Head of State is the British Queen. 93 % of the population is of British origin and 7 % of the population are the Maoris, the original inhabitants. The official language is English and the Maoris speak Maori.

 

The country is full of hills, valleys, meadows, country roads. The main industries are food processing, transport equipment, textiles, cement, oil refining. New Zealand is the world´s third largest producer of wool.

 

The capital of New Zealand: Wellington

 

Wellington is often called Windy Wellington because it is the windiest city in New Zealand. It has a population around 180 000 people. Wellington is New Zealand's political centre. Wellington has the 12th best quality of living in the world in 2009. The area has high seismic activity. Wellington has a reputation for its picturesque natural harbour and green hillsides with tiered suburbs of colonial villas. On the hill west of the city centre are Victoria University and Wellington Botanic Garden.